Cadmium

nassar's picture

Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies on the Adsorptive Removal of Nickel, Cadmium ‎and Cobalt from Wastewater by Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoadsorbents

Journal Title, Volume, Page: 
The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering Volume 90, Issue 5, pages 1231–1238
Year of Publication: 
2012
Authors: 
Nashaat N. Nassar
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N 1N4
Current Affiliation: 
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Preferred Abstract (Original): 

Because of its unique properties, such as specific functionality and large specific surface area, iron oxide nanoadsorbents had showed potential for energy and environmental applications. This work investigated the adsorptive removal of different metal ions from wastewater by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoadsorbents (Fe3O4). Batch-adsorption technique was employed to assess the kinetic behaviour and adsorption equilibrium of cadmium, cobalt and nickel. Accordingly, the effect of the following variables on the adsorption reaction was tested, namely: solution pH, contact time and temperature. Metal ion adsorption was found to be highly pH dependent with a maximum uptake achieved around pH 5.5. Kinetic studies showed that adsorption was fast and equilibrium was achieved in less than 60 min. The external mass transfer kinetic model was applied to the experimental results and provided reasonable overall volumetric mass transfer coefficients. Adsorption isotherms were determined and appropriately described by the Freundlich and Langmuir models, with a better fit to the Freundlich model. The amount of metal ion adsorbed increased as the temperature increased, suggesting an endothermic adsorption process. The thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. © 2011 Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering

shkhalaf's picture

Effects on Growth and Uptake of Broad Beans (Vicia Fabae L.) by Root and Foliar Treatments of Plant With ‎Lead and Cadmium

Journal Title, Volume, Page: 
Journal of Environmental Science and Health . Part A: Environmental Science and Engineering and Toxicology Volume 27, Issue 7
Year of Publication: 
1992
Authors: 
S. Khalafa
Chemistry Department, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Current Affiliation: 
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Radi Salima
Chemistry Department, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
M.M. Al‐Subua
Chemistry Department, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
A. Douleha
Chemistry Department, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Preferred Abstract (Original): 

Uptake of toxic metals by plants has been of great interest to environmental scientists because this might harm the growth of plant and cause health hazard to man and animal.

In this study, the effects of two elements (lead and cadmium) which cause high concern because of their cummulative nature have been studied on broad beans. Both elements have been found to affect the growth of broad beans and this effect increased with the increase of concentration of metal in solutions used for root‐treatment or for foliar‐treatment of plant. The effect of foliar‐treatment was very much higher than the effect of root‐treatment by lead or cadmium.

Cadmium was found more toxic to plant growth than lead. The effect of cadmium treatment was more on the growth of fruits while the effect of lead treatment was more on the roots of broad beans. The least affected part by lead or cadmium was the stem of plant.

Both the concentration and the whole content of metal in plants and its varoius parts (roots, stem, leaves and fruits) increased steadily with the increase of cadmium or lead concentration in solutions used for either root‐treatment or foliar‐treatment. Concentration of metal ions was higher in roots and leaves than in fruits and stems of treated plants.

The uptake of metal to plant was calculated to be a very small part of the total amount of metal added during treatment.

Some explanations have been suggested in this study to explain the results obtained.

2052's picture

Efficiency of Removal of Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions by Plant Leaves and the Effects of Interaction of Combinations of Leaves on Their Removal Efficiency

Journal Title, Volume, Page: 
Journal of Environmental Management Volume 87, Issue 3, May 2008, Pages 521–532
Year of Publication: 
2008
Authors: 
R. Salim
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
M. Al-Subu
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Current Affiliation: 
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
E. Dawod
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Preferred Abstract (Original): 

Removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions using 20 species of plant leaves and combinations of these leaves have been studied. Several factors affecting the removal efficiency have been studied. The most efficient types of plant leaves for the removal of cadmium are those of styrax, plum, pomegranate and walnut. The interaction effect of the combined leaf samples on the efficiency of removal of cadmium has been found to be additive in combinations involving styrax plant leaves but seems to be antagonistic in all other combinations. The optimum experimental conditions for removal of cadmium have been found to be at pH 4.1, using high concentrations of naturally dried plant leaves, using ground leaves and to remove cadmium from agitated aqueous solutions. The percentage of metal removed at an initial cadmium concentration of 10 mg/l by the most efficient types of leaves have been found to be 85% for styrax leaves, 85% for plum leaves, 80% for pomegranate leaves, 78% for walnut leaves and 77% for meddler leaves. The presence of foreign ions or complexing agents has been found to reduce the efficiency of removal of cadmium by plant leaves. About 80–85% of the cadmium in charged plant leaves has been released under the influence of changing the pH of the solution, addition of competing ions and the addition of EDTA. The results of removal of cadmium by plant leaves have been found to follow the Freundlich adsorption isotherm, first-order reaction with respect to cadmium and to have intra-pore diffusion as the rate-limiting step.

2052's picture

Uptake of Cadmium from Water by Beech Leaves

Journal Title, Volume, Page: 
Journal of Environmental Science and Health . Part A: Environmental Science and Engineering and Toxicology Volume 27, Issue 3, 1992
Year of Publication: 
1992
Authors: 
Radi Salim
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
M.M. Al‐Subu
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Current Affiliation: 
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
E. Sahrhage
Department of Ecology, Faculty for Biology , University of Bielefeld , Bielefeld, 4800, Germany
Preferred Abstract (Original): 

Uptake of cadmium from aqueous solutions by beech leaves has been studied. The effect of several factors on both rate and amount of this uptake has been studied. These factors include concentration of leaves, concentration of cadmium, pH, competing ions and drying leaves. The pattern of the curves showing the loss of cadmium from solution has been explained. Applicability of the Freündlich adsorption isotherm on the present results has been examined and the parameters of this isotherm have been calculated. The order of reaction between cadmium ions and beech leaves has been determined and a mechanism for this reaction has been suggested.

2052's picture

Effects of Several Factors on the Growth and On the Metal Uptake Distribution of Pepper Plants Treated With Cadmium

Journal Title, Volume, Page: 
Journal of Environmental Science and Health . Part A: Environmental Science and Engineering and Toxicology Volume 30, Issue 8, 1995
Year of Publication: 
1995
Authors: 
Radi Salim
An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
M.M. Al‐Subu
An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Current Affiliation: 
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Yahia S.S. Ismail
An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Preferred Abstract (Original): 

Several factors affecting the growth and the metal uptake of pepper plants treated with cadmium solutions have been studied. These include concentration of cadmium, type of treatment, type of soil, plant species, and some properties of solutions used for treatment such as acidity, degree of salinity and temperature.
Cadmium had an obvious effect on the growth of pepper plants. Foliar‐treated plants were affected more than root‐treated plants. The least degree of growth‐inhibition and of cadmium uptake was found in plants grown in soils with high organic matter content. Various species of pepper plants acted very differently towards cadmium treatment. Both growth‐inhibition and cadmium uptake was increased in plants treated with acidic, saline and hot solutions.

2052's picture

Effects of Several Factors on the Growth and On the Metal Uptake and Uptake Distribution of Okra Plant Treated With Cadmium

Journal Title, Volume, Page: 
Journal of Environmental Science and Health . Part A: Environmental Science and Engineering and Toxicology Volume 30, Issue 9, 1995
Year of Publication: 
1995
Authors: 
Radi Salim
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
M.M. Al‐Subu
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Current Affiliation: 
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Y.S.S. Ismail
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Preferred Abstract (Original): 

Several factors affecting the growth and the uptake of cadmium by okra plants were studied using both root ‐ treatment and foliar ‐ treatment. These factors were the concentration of cadmium , type of treatment, soil composition, presence of foreign ions, salinity, acidity and temperature.
Both growth of plant and cadmium uptake by plant were affected highly by the concentration of cadmium, type of treatment, soil composition, salinity and temperature. Acidity of solutions has only a little and irregular effect. A synergistic combined effect of lead, copper and zinc with cadmium was observed on the growth of plant but not regular on the uptake of cadmium.

2052's picture

Effect of Irrigation with Lead and Cadmium on the Growth and on the Metal Uptake of Cauliflower, Spinach and Parsley

Journal Title, Volume, Page: 
Journal of Environmental Science and Health . Part A: Environmental Science and Engineering and Toxicology Volume 30, Issue 4, 1995
Year of Publication: 
1995
Authors: 
R. Salim
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
M. Isa
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
M.M. Al‐Subu
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Current Affiliation: 
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
S. A. Sayrafi
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
O. Sayrafi
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Preferred Abstract (Original): 

The effect of root‐treatment of cauliflower, spinach, and parsley plants with lead and cadmium were studied. Both metal ions showed obvious growth inhibition of treated plants with cadmium having higher toxicity on growth than lead.
Cadmium was more concentrated in the edible parts of the three treated plants whereas lead was more concentrated in the edible parts of cauliflower and spinach plants only.
Metal ion concentrations and total metal ion content of treated plants increased with the increase of concentration of cadmium or lead ions in solutions used for treatment. The uptake of metal ion per unit concentration decreased in treated plants with the increase of concentration of cadmium or lead ions in solutions used for treatment.
Metal ion concentration and metal uptake were higher in the plants treated with cadmium than those treated with lead.

2052's picture

Effects of Root and Foliar Treatments of Carrot Plants with Lead and Cadmium on the Growth, Uptake and the Distribution of Uptake of Metals in Treated Plants

Journal Title, Volume, Page: 
Journal of Environmental Science and Health . Part A: Environmental Science and Engineering and Toxicology Volume 27, Issue 7, 1992
Year of Publication: 
1992
Authors: 
Radi Salim
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
M.M. Al‐Subu
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Current Affiliation: 
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
A. Douleh
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
L. Chenavier
Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology , Bielefeld University , Bielefeld 1, D‐4800, Germany
J. Hagemeyer
Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology , Bielefeld University , Bielefeld 1, D‐4800, Germany
Preferred Abstract (Original): 

Toxicity of cadmium and lead on the growth of carrot plants has been studied. Cadmium has been found to be more toxic than lead especially on the shoots of carrot plants.
Foliar treatment has been compared with root‐treatment for the two elements on carrots and on their roots and shoots.
Concentrations and total contents of lead and cadmium in whole plant in roots and in shoots have been determined for treated carrot plants and compared in root‐treatment with foliar‐treatment. Explanations have been suggested whenever possible to illucidate the results obtained.
Percentages of the metals taken by plants from the whole amounts of metal added during treatment have been calculated and related to type of metal used, concentration of metal in solutions used for treatment and the way of treatment.

2052's picture

Effects on Growth and Uptake of Broad Beans (Vicia Fabae L.) By Root and Foliar Treatments of Plant with Lead and Cadmium

Journal Title, Volume, Page: 
Journal of Environmental Science and Health . Part A: Environmental Science and Engineering and Toxicology Volume 27, Issue 7, 1992
Year of Publication: 
1992
Authors: 
Radi Salim
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
M.M. Al‐Subu
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Current Affiliation: 
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Douleha & S. Khalaf
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Preferred Abstract (Original): 

Uptake of toxic metals by plants has been of great interest to environmental scientists because this might harm the growth of plant and cause health hazard to man and animal.
In this study, the effects of two elements (lead and cadmium) which cause high concern because of their cummulative nature have been studied on broad beans. Both elements have been found to affect the growth of broad beans and this effect increased with the increase of concentration of metal in solutions used for root‐treatment or for foliar‐treatment of plant. The effect of foliar‐treatment was very much higher than the effect of root‐treatment by lead or cadmium. Cadmium was found more toxic to plant growth than lead. The effect of cadmium treatment was more on the growth of fruits while the effect of lead treatment was more on the roots of broad beans. The least affected part by lead or cadmium was the stem of plant.
Both the concentration and the whole content of metal in plants and its varoius parts (roots, stem, leaves and fruits) increased steadily with the increase of cadmium or lead concentration in solutions used for either root‐treatment or foliar‐treatment. Concentration of metal ions was higher in roots and leaves than in fruits and stems of treated plants.
The uptake of metal to plant was calculated to be a very small part of the total amount of metal added during treatment.
Some explanations have been suggested in this study to explain the results obtained.

2052's picture

Effects, on Growth and Uptake Distribution, of Root and Foliar Treatments of Marrow Plants with Cadmium and Lead Solutions

Journal Title, Volume, Page: 
Journal of Environmental Science and Health . Part A: Environmental Science and Engineering and Toxicology Volume 27, Issue 8, 1992
Year of Publication: 
1992
Authors: 
Radi Salim
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
J. Hagemeyer
Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Bielefeld University, D-4800 bielefld 1, Germany
M.M. Al‐Subu
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Current Affiliation: 
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
A. Atallah
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
L. Chenavier
Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Bielefeld University, D-4800 bielefld 1, Germany
Preferred Abstract (Original): 

In this study the effects of root and foliar treatments of marrow plants with cadmium and lead solutions on the growth of the various parts of plant (roots, stem, leaves and fruits) have been studied. Growth inhibition of the various parts of treated plants has been compared with each other and for the two types of treatment. The toxicity of cadmium on the growth of plant has been compared with the toxicity of lead on the various parts of plants treated by root or by foliar‐treatment with metal ions.
Cadmium and lead uptake by plants and the distribution of this uptake between the various parts of treated plants have been determined and commented on.
Percentages of cadmium or lead taken by plant from the total amount of cadmium or lead added during treatment have been calculated and found to be very small. This percentage has been found to be higher in foliar‐treated plants and from dilute solutions than in root‐treated plants and from more concentrated cadmium or lead solutions.

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