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Prerequisite: BIOS-24101 & BIOS-24102

Characteristics and relationships of the major animal groups from protista

through  the mammals are discussed.



A. Develop an understanding of the unity and orderliness of living things and life


B. Learn about the common characteristics of all types of animals and the

increasing complexity of the animals higher on the evolutionary scale

C. Study the specific characteristics of each major group, relating structure to


D. Study the adaptive features which have enabled the different types of animals

to fit their particular ecological niches

E. Gain an appreciation of biological diversity as well as the processes of

ecology that create and maintain such diversity as well as the processes that

can destroy the diversity of life on earth

F. Understand that life on earth is dynamic and ever changing

G. Maintain proper microscopy techniques in the study of laboratory specimens

H. Learn techniques for collecting and identifying certain species

I. Learn appropriate dissection techniques on fresh and preserved specimens

J. Identify useful resources for the study of the animal kingdom



B. Instructor prepared laboratory handouts and maintained library of reference

materials including text books and lab manuals, field guides and identification







BIOS-24264 2

C. Selected video cassettes. Students encouraged to make time for specific showings of NATURE, CD showing various lab animals and their classification.

D. Fresh and preserved dissection specimens, study and display specimens are

utilized in laboratory settings as well as classroom demonstrations

E. Utilization of the Internet to build bibliographies of information about featured

weekly animal groups and communication between the student and instructor

as well as student to student.



A. Introduction, Phylogeny, Evolution

Lab: Natural Selection

B. Protista

Lab: Protista

C. Sponges and Radiates

Lab: Porifera and Cnidaria

D. Acoelomates

Lab: Platyhelminthes

E. Pseudocoelomates

Lab: Rotifers and Roundworms

F. Mollusks

Lab: Mollusks

G. Annelids

Lab: Annelids Segmented worms




H. Arthropods I

Lab: Arthropoda/ Crustacea

I. Arthropods II

Lab: Arthropoda/ Insects

J. Echinoderms and lesser Deuterostomes

Lab: Echinodermata

K. Chordata

Lab: Chordata




Lab. Amphioxus



O. Fishes

Lab: Shark , Telapia nelotica

P. Amphibians

Lab: Necturus

Q. Reptiles

Lab: Turtle, snake , crocodile, and chameleon

R. Birds

Lab: PIGEON anatomy

S. Mammals

Lab: Rabbit anatomy , & human anatomy model


Materials are presented via lecture and laboratory. Every attempt is made to

include Internet addresses for information appropriate for detailing the featured

group. In addition any materials from outside the normal lecture and text

readings are added to the presentation. Laboratory is hands-on exposing

students to as many of the species within a group as possible. Materials are

supplemented with select videos and programs usually from INTERNET

schedules are monitored for appropriate programs. Lectures are traditional with

occasional multimedia presentations.


A. EXAMS. First exam will cover  animal groups and  will focus on lecture materials.

There will be approximately 3 exams all of equal weight and we select 2 of them,

will comprise 30% of the final grade.




B. Lab Practical Exams. Lab practical will focus on laboratory materials,

specimens and dissections and will be constructed to focus on sight

identification of organisms as well as specific characteristics and

classifications. The lab practical exams will comprise 20% of the final grade.

C. Theory Final Exam. Students will be given 4-6 essay questions covering

key concepts that prevailed throughout the semester. Focus is on concepts

that were addressed by each group such as structure , function , classification ,development t. The final will comprise 35% of the final grade. Presentation done by students equal 5%

D. Internet Research. Students will choose three groups of interest and

develop a bibliography of internet sites that contain information about their

groups. The Internet research will comprise 10% of the final grade.


(See Attached)


Academic integrity forms a fundamental bond of trust between colleagues,

teachers, and students . At biology &biotechnology dept., there is no tolerance for plagiarism or academic dishonesty in any form, including

unacknowledged "borrowing" of proprietary material, copying answers or papers,

or passing off someone else’s work as one's own.

A breach of ethics or act of dishonesty can result in:

• failure of a paper or exam within a course

• failure of an entire course .

• academic suspension or expulsion from the college


UNIT 1: Introduction to Zoology

1. Describe or explain the general approach which will be used in the course.

2. Correctly pronounce the word zoology.




3. Draw a simple phylogeny tree which shows the major phyla to be covered; include

at least one characteristic which can be used to differentiate each main branch of the tree.

4. Define taxonomy; define nomenclature and explain the usefulness of taxonomy and nomenclature in zoology.

5. List the taxonomic categories (Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus,

Species) and give the classification of some kind of animal to illustrate these categories.

6. State what a scientific name of any kind of organism consists of and illustrate by writing the scientific name of any species.

7. Define or explain what is meant by the term species.

8. Discuss how modern theorists apply the disciplines of genetics, ecological theory,

Paleontology, comparative anatomy,  and organic evolution to the study of zoology.

9. List several subdivisions of the field of zoology.

Exclusion, Biodiversity.

10. Familiarize yourself with key terms presented in the introductory readings:

Primitive, Advanced, Higher vs. Lower, Benthic, Pelagic, Autotrophic, Heterotrophic,

Holozoic , Saprozoic , Symmetry, Cephalization, Sagittal Plane, Frontal Plane,

Transverse Plane.

11. Discuss the prevailing patterns of organization in the animal kingdom; Unicellular,

Multicellular/ Diploblastic, Multicellular/ Triploblastic.

12. Define coelom and discuss the coelom in relationship to Acoelomate,

Pseudocoelomate and Eucoelomate animals.


Resources: ZOOLOGY The Animal Kingdom

UNIT 2: Kingdom Protista


1. State the estimated number of named species and briefly describe their distribution.

2. Summarize the classification scheme of the Kingdom Protista.






3. Identify the key characteristics used to separate protozoan animals into their

individual phylum and class.

4. Describe the symbiotic relationships that the protozoan commonly employ for


5. Describe the primary means with which the protozoan acquire food.

6. Discuss both the economic benefits and harm of the animals in this kingdom.

7. Describe and discuss amoeboid movement with pseudopodia as well as locomotion

employing cilia and flagella.

8. State the two prevailing hypotheses of how cilia work.

9. Define the term a cellular, and tell why it may be more suitable than the term one celled , in describing protozoa.

10. Describe the action and function of contractile vacuoles.

11. Define organelle. Describe the form and function of organelles observed in the laboratory specimens.

12. Describe the coordinated mechanisms  and taxis ( taxis- responses) of these genera:

Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena and Plasmodium.

13. Outline the life cycle of Entamoeba histolytica, state the importance of amoebiasis, and describe control measures.

14. Describe cyst formation in protozoa and its effect on life cycles and distribution. Utilize the flagellate of the genus Trypanosoma as an example.

15. State the significance of the foraminifera and radiolaria in the formation of layers in the earth's crust.

16. Use the diversity among different species of flagellated protozoa to justify the idea that flagellates may represent the primitive group from which other protozoa, the sponges and plants may have evolved.

17. Describe the variation in asexual and sexual reproduction in different groups within the kingdom.

18. Outline the life cycle of Trypanosoma gambiense, state the importance of African sleeping sickness, and describe control measures.





19. Outline the life cycle of Plasmodium vivax, state the importance of malaria .

20. Differentiate between the classes Phytomastigophorea and Zoomastigophorea.

21. Explain how gas exchange and excretion occur in protozoa, and why special

structures for these functions are not necessary.

22. Describe the importance of protozoa in aquatic food chains.

23. List the possible habitats of members of the different classes of protozoa.

Resources: ZOOLOGY The Animal Kingdom

UNIT 3: Phylum Porifera and Phylum Cnidaria (Sponges and Radiates)

1. Explain the basis for separating the sponges into the three classes, Calcarea,

Hexactinellida and Demospongiae, and state the composition of the supporting

structures in the members of each class.

2. Describe the tissues, organs, nerves, coordination, digestive system and general activity .

3. Describe the forms and functions of the following sponge cell types, and list any synonyms of these terms: choanocyte, pinacocyte, porocyte, myocyte, scleroblast, , archaeocyte.

4. Define sessile and describe how this term applies to the phylums porifera and


5. List the primary building materials used by sponges.

6. Diagram various forms of spicules used by sponges to construct their skeleton.

7. Trace the pathway of a food molecule through a common sponge.

8. Detail the three canal systems used by sponges. Highlight specifically the increase in surface area enabling sponges to attain larger sizes.

9. Discuss reproductive strategies of the sponges. Highlight the use of gemmules by freshwater sponges. Also discuss the lack of differentiation among the sponges allowing them great powers of regeneration.

10. Explain why coelenterates (cnidarians) are referred to as animals of the tissue grade of construction.





11. Explain the following terms: planula, gastrovascular cavity, polyp, medusa.

12. Discuss the basis for the phylum name cnidaria.

13. Define polymorphism and its applications to the cnidarian phylum.

14. Describe the three tissue layers and detail the types of cells found in each.

15. List the classes of cnidarians and give representatives of each class.

16. Describe the importance of the polyp and medusa stages in the life cycles of typical , Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Anthozoa.

17. Describe the appearance of an Obelia colony, and outline the life cycle, naming each stage.

18. Describe the general form and activities of Hydra.

19. Explain in detail the origin and functioning of the nematocyst.

20. Compare the methods of digesting food in Hydra and Scypha.

21. Compare the nervous systems of Hydra and Scypha.

22. Compare the gas exchange and excretory systems of Hydra and Scypha.

23. Describe structure and function of rhopalium, statocysts and ocillus.


Resources: ZOOLOGY The Animal Kingdom




UNIT 4: Acoelomate Animals: Phylum Platyhelminthes

1. Discuss the current triploblastic acoelomate body plan.

2. Discuss the concept of the organ/system level of organization and apply this to the phylum to be studied in this unit.

3. Define bilateral symmetry and cephalization.

4. Compare the embryo development in cnidarians and in the higher metazoa, including presence, formation and function of the mesoderm.

5. Explain what excretion consists of, and tell why excretory systems are necessary in, the more complex animal groups.

6. Describe flame cells and their function in general, and the excretory system of

planaria in particular.

7. Briefly describe these advances of the flatworms over previously studied phyla:

symmetry, nervous and sensory systems, mesoderm formation, muscle systems,

excretory systems, digestive systems and reproductive systems.

8. Explain the terms hermaphroditic, monoecious and dioecious, and state what animal types in general are hermaphroditic.

9. List features which will be expected in higher phyla but are not possessed by the flatworms, and tell why these features are unnecessary in flatworms.

10. State the probable evolutionary relationship between free-living species and

parasitic species in the same group, and describe three ways in which a species must change as it evolves from a free-living form to a parasitic way of life.

11. Briefly describe planaria taxis responses, nervous system, method of feeding and digestion of food, muscular system and reproduction.

12. Describe regeneration in planaria.

13. List and briefly describe the ways in which the Trematoda differ from the


14. List and discuss specific trends displayed by organisms that have developed a parasitic mode of existance.





15. Describe the morphology of Clonorchis as an example of a digenetic

trematode, and outlying the life cycle of this species, including hosts, larval stages, and means of transmission from host to host.

16. Outline the life cycle of Schistosoma mansoni and describe the medicinal

importance of schistosomiasis.

17. Discuss the critical aspect of reproductive potential with regard to trematodes and cestodes, describe the numbers game they must play in order to survive.

18. Diagram the morphology of a tapeworm including descriptions of the scolex,

strobila and proglottids, tell how tapeworms differ from trematodes.

19. Outline the life cycles of T.solium pork tapeworm and T. saginatus the beef


20. Describe the evolutionary significance of the Phylum Nematoda


Resources: ZOOLOGY The Animal Kingdom

UNIT 5: Pseudocoelomate Animals: Phylum Nematoda, Phylum Rotifera, Phylum


1. Examine further the characteristics of parasitic lifestyles.

2. Appreciate that the ability to move potentially allows parasites to be more harmful to their hosts. Form an opinion as to whether the parasites in the phylum nematode adhere to the rules of being a parasite.

3. Discuss the advent of the pseudocoel and contrast this development with the coelom of the previous group.

4. Discuss common trends within the roundworms, specifically, a complete digestive tract, non-cellular cuticle made of collagen, ecdysis, parthenogenesis .

5. Compare the digestive tract, body wall covering, reproductive pattern , regenerative ability and cell arrangement in flatworms and roundworms.

6. Compare the number of species of free-living nematodes and parasitic nematodes.

7. Describe the habitat and size of free-living nematodes, and compare these with parasitic nematodes.

8. Describe the general morphology of nematodes, and compare the size and form of males and females.




9. Explain what body movements are possible in nematodes and relate this to the

composition and arrangement of structures in the body wall.

10. Explain a hydrostatic skeleton and how it works with respect to the cuticle.

11. Compare the excretory systems of parasitic and free-living nematodes.

12. Describe the reproductive organs and the unique features of reproduction in

general in nematodes.

13. Describe the morphology and outline the lifecycles of the following: Ascaris

lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, Enterobius, and Dracunulus medinensis .

14. Discuss the impact and diseases caused world wide by the nematode worms in the previous objective.

15. Describe the size, general appearance and distribution of rotifers.

16. Describe the food habits and method of feeding of rotifers, including the function of the corona, mastax and trophi.

17. Define syncytium and describe the unique features of the cell arrangement in


18. Define parthenogenesis and out-ling the reproductive pattern of a rotifer species in which there are no males.

19. Outline the reproductive pattern in a rotifer species in which males occur including the capabilities of amictic and mictic females.

20. Describe the developments in each of the following areas: excretion, digestion, nervous function, muscular system and reproduction.


Resources: ZOOLOGY The Animal Kingdom




UNIT 6: Eucoelomate Animals: Phylum Mollusca (Mollusks)

1. Diagram and discuss the schizocoel and enterocoel hypotheses of coelom


2. Define the terms protostome and deuterostome. Discuss the differences between the two forms of development.

3. Summarize the evidence which places the mollusks where they are in relationship to the annelids on the phylogenetic tree.

4. Compare the size and diversity of the Phylum Mollusca with other phyla.

5. List the seven classes of mollusks, give any common names for each class, and representatives of each class.

6. List and briefly describe the mollusk characteristics of shell, mantle, radula and foot in each of the seven classes.

7. Diagram and describe the three layers of a typical mollusk shell.

8. Describe the formation of a pearl.

9. Use the variation within the mollusks to illustrate what is meant by adaptive radiation, and relate the success of the mollusks in adaptive radiation to the new phylum characteristics and the conditions at the time the phylum evolved.

10. Compare the mollusk circulatory system and oxygen-combining pigment with those of earlier phyla.

11. Detail the benefits that mollusks provide man, particularly the economic benefits. Contrast the economic benefits of this group with the economic impacts of the previous groups discussed in this class.

12. Describe gastropod torsion and the conditions that result from this process.

13. Define operculum and radula.

14. Describe coiling in gastropods. Identify the differences between gastropoda and scaphopoda.

15. List characteristics of the 2 subclasses of gastropods, the scophopoda

16. Outline the life cycle of a typical freshwater clam.





17. Briefly describe the anatomy and functioning of the respiratory system, digestive system, circulatory system, excretory system and reproductive system of the clam.

18. Describe the foot in each class, and the general arrangement of the digestive tract.

19. Name the unique organ in the mollusk mouth which is used for feeding.

20. Detail the role of the crystalline style in the digestive system of a clam. Trace the route of a food particle through the digestive system of a clam starting with entry into the clam and ending with exiting of waste.

21. Briefly describe the method of movement, activities in general and the feeding method of members of each class.

22. Summarize the ways in which cephalopods are more complex than the other kinds of mollusks.

23. Compare the circulatory system of the cephalopods to that of the bivalves and higher organisms such as chordates.

24. Describe the unique features of reproduction in the cephalopods.


Resources: ZOOLOGY The Animal Kingdom

UNIT 7: Phylum Annelida and Protostomes (Annelids)

1. Define and explain these terms: eucoelomate, prostomia, deuterostomia,

schizocoelous, enterocoelous and trochophore.

2. Explain the etymology of Annelida and compare the general complexity of the body systems of the annelids with previously studied phyla.

3. Explain metamerism. Highlight the two different forms of segmentation displayed by the remaining phyla to be studied.

4. State the three classes within the phylum Annelida and give examples of each.

5. Discuss the ecological impact of members of the phylum, citing the earthworm

specifically and its role in maintaining good soils.

6. List several general phylum characteristics concentrating on new developments.

7. Identify members of the class Hirudinea and discuss differences between members of this class and the other two of the phylum.

8. Cite differences between polychaete worms and others in the phylum.





9. Discribe the digestive tract of the Oligocheata, tracing the passage of materials

from mouth to anus.

10. List and briefly describe the organs and systems which are introduced for the first time with the annelids, or which are more highly developed in the annelids than in previously studied groups.

11. Describe how reproduction occurs in the earthworm, a representative of the class Oligochaeta.






Resources: ZOOLOGY The Animal Kingdom

UNIT 8: Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods I and II)

1. List and briefly describe the characteristics shared by the Phylum Annelida and the

Phylum Arthropoda and which seem to relate the two phyla.

2. Describe the general anatomy, functioning and value of the unique appendages of arthropods.

3. List and briefly describe the usefulness and disadvantages of the chitin exoskeleton of arthropods including its contribution to muscle efficiency.

4. Give the name of the type of segmentation in arthropods and explain how this is an advantage over the situation displayed in the annelids.

5. State the function of gills, book lungs, trachaea and malphighian tubules and relate each of these to the general habitat of the arthropods which possess these organs.

6. Describe the advances over previous phyla of the arthropod nervous system

including the nature of and value of instincts.

7. List the groups of animals in the four subphyla of the Phylum Arthropoda.

8. State the embryologic origin, location and function of chelicerae, pedipalps,

mandibles and antennae and relate each of these organs to the kind of arthropods which have them.

9. Discuss several beneficial as well as harmful aspects of members of the Phylum Arthropoda.

10. Discuss metamerism and define tagmata.




11. List and discuss several reasons contributing to arthropod success.

12. Identify members of the arthropod classes by highlighting the number of legs and antennae each posses.

13. Discuss the Subphylum : Chelicerata, specifically the Class : Arachnida. Highlight chelicerae, pedipalps, book lungs, and spiracles.

14. Identify several types of webs used by spiders.

15. State three other groups of organisms besides the arachnids that belong to the class Arachnida.

16. Justify the claim that the Decapod class of the Subphylum Crustacea have the greatest direct impact on people.

17. State two ways in which crustaceans differ from other arthropods.

18. Discuss the excretory system of the crustaceans.

19. Detail and discuss the unique features of the crustacean digestive and respiratory systems.

20. Discuss the arthropod nervous system in general and detail the advancements in the development of the eye.

21. List three classes of the subphylum Uniramia and give examples of each.

22. List several features of the class Insecta that differentiate it from other members of the arthropod phylum.

23. Discuss three types of metamorphosis displayed by insects.

24. Describe the selective advantage of complete metamorphosis.


Resources: ZOOLOGY The Animal Kingdom

UNIT 9: Phylum Echinodermata and Lesser Deuterostomes (Echinoderms)

1. Describe pentaradial symmetry and its applications to the lifestyles of the


2. Diagram and discuss the echinoderm water vascular system including its supposed original function and its functions in living species.

3. Briefly describe the excretory, respiratory and nervous systems of the echinoderms.

4. Discuss the class Asteroidea, describe the following aspects of their body plan: ossicles, pedicellaria, spines and papulae.

5. Diagram a cross section of a sea star showing the pyloric and cardiac stomachs, gonads , anus, pyloric ceacum , mouth and coelom .

6. Describe the reproductive capacities and strategies of the sea star. Also address the sea stars regenerative capabilities as a reproductive capability.





Resources: ZOOLOGY The Animal Kingdom

UNIT 10: Phylum Chordata (Chordata)

1. List and briefly describe the four primary chordate phylum characteristics.

2. List the three subphyla in the phylum Chordata, name representatives of each, and define their habitats in general.

3. Describe the two unique features of the vertebrates, or craniates, which have

enabled them to become the predominant group of large animals.

4. Describe the characteristics of the hypothetical first chordate, the habitat in which its evolution is thought to have occurred, and the reasoning upon which this is based.

5. List the characteristics of present day tunicates which are similar to the hypothetical first chordate.

6. List the characteristics which make Amphioxus seem like a reasonable candidate for an ancestor to the vertebrates.

7. List the characteristics which make it seem unlikely that Amphioxus was actually the ancestral chordate from which the vertebrates evolved.

8. Name and describe the characteristics of the present day animal whose life cycle may indicate a more probable ancestor of the first fish.

9. Contrast the basic body plans of chordates and non-chordates (e.g. insects)

10. Describe the anatomy, feeding and respiration of a sea squirt.

11. Outline the life cycle of a typical tunicate

12. Briefly describe the anatomy, habitat and ecological niche of Amphioxus.








13. Diagram a generalized vertebrate, showing the location of the nerve cord,

notochord and vertebrae; heart, gills and lungs; digestive tract and accessory organs;

and kidneys and gonads.

14. List the seven classes of vertebrates and give examples and main distinguishing

characteristics of each.

15. List and describe four major advances displayed by the subphylum vertebrata over previously studied groups.


Resources: ZOOLOGY The Animal Kingdom

UNIT 11: Sub-Phylum Vertebrata, Agnatha

1. Briefly describe the excretory, skeletal, muscle and nervous systems and method of feeding of the supposed immediate ancestor of the first vertebrate, and relate each of these characteristics to its function in the evolution of fish.

2. Create a fish family tree showing the relationship of the,

Cyclostomata, Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes.

3. Draw a family tree of the Osteichthyes showing the relationship between the lobefins and the ray fins; describe any outstanding features of each group.

4. Describe the basic differences between pronephros, mesonephros and metanephros , kidneys, and relate each type to the vertebrate group in which it is found.

5. Describe the external appearance of lampreys .

6. Outline the life cycle of the sea lamprey, including the apparent trigger for


7. List the ways in which the Chondrichthyes are more advanced than the cyclostomes.

8. Describe the heterocercal tail of the shark. Describe in detail how the body plan of the shark helps it achieve lift.

9. Describe the respiratory apparatus of the shark and special problems it encounters because it lacks an operculum.





10. Compare the most common reproductive patterns in sharks and in bony fish.

11. State the original function of the swim bladder, and describe the extent to which it is still used for that function in the different osteichthyes.

12. Describe the anatomy and function of the lateral line system, and name the fish groups which have this organ.

13. Compare and contrast the homocercal tail of the bony fish with the heterocercal tail of the sharks.

14. Describe the differences between ram ventilation, the usage of spiracles and the countercurrent mechanism employed by fish to accomplish respiration.

16. Name the fish groups in which the notochord is completely replaced by vertebrae.

15. Name and describe the characteristics of the two main body patterns in the

teleosts, and give examples of local fish representing each body pattern.

16. List and briefly describe the ways in which the bony fish are more advanced than the shark group and cyclostomes.


Resources: ZOOLOGY The Animal Kingdom

UNIT 12: Sub-Phylum Vertebrata, Class Amphibia (Amphibians)

1. Give the main characteristics and list some representatives of each of these orders:

Anura, Apoda and Caudata.

2. Describe the method of fertilization, and the unique characteristics of a fertilized frog egg.

3. Describe why cleavage and embryo formation must be slightly different in the sea star, frog and bird, and state which is considered to show the most basic embryo development for this evolutionary line.

4. Summarize the changes which occur in the metamorphosis of a tadpole into a frog, including changes in the digestive system and feeding methods, gas exchange, locomotion, nervous system and general form.





5. Relate amphibian evolution to the time and geologic period in which amphibia first appeared became the dominant land animals and were succeeded by the reptiles.

6. List the reasons why amphibia were able to evolve and diversify relatively rapidly.

7. State how and to what extent the amphibia solved these problems of land living: water loss, gas exchange, reproduction, circulatory system modification, locomotion, support, feeding and nutrition, temperature regulation.

8. Describe the habitat and unique features of the blindworms.

9. List the common names of several salamanders, or members of the order Caudata, and state the size range of different species of salamanders.

10. Describe the unique features of the life cycles of the American newt, Necturus .

14. Amphibian anatomy exsample , necturus .








Resources: ZOOLOGY The Animal Kingdom

UNIT 13: Sub-Phylum Vertebrata, Class Reptilia (Reptiles)




1. List and detail nine characteristics of reptiles that allowed a complete break from dependence upon water.

2. Describe the way in which the heart of alligators and crocodiles is different from other reptiles.

3. State the type of kidney which reptiles have, and name the other classes of

vertebrates which have this kidney.

4. Describe how the reptilian kidney assists in water conservation, and state what the liquid waste excreted by reptiles consists of.

5. Describe the unique arrangement of the pectoral and pelvic girdles in the turtles.

6. List the suborders of the Order Squamata and give some representatives of each suborder.

7. Name the most specialized and also the most successful group of modern day


8. Compare the eyelids, external ear openings, lower jaw arrangement and limbs of snakes and lizards.

9. List the types of snakes which are poisonous and nonpoisonous .


Resources: ZOOLOGY The Animal Kingdom

UNIT 14: Sub-Phylum Vertebrata, Class Aves (Birds)




1. State the advantages of homiothermy and briefly describe the mechanisms for

producing, conserving and regulating heat.

2. Describe the ways in which the breathing system of birds is more efficient than that of mammals.


3. Name and briefly describe the structure and function of the different types of


4. Compare bird vision and human vision as to efficiency, focusing arrangement,

colors detected and structural differences.

5. Compare the senses of hearing, taste and smell in birds and humans.

and polyandrous relataionship






Resources: ZOOLOGY The Animal Kingdom

UNIT 15: Sub-Phylum Vertebrata, Class Mammalia (Mammals)




1. Analyze the relationship between the intelligence of mammals, the variety of habitats and ecological niches mammals occupy, and the relatively small number of species of mammals.

2. Describe the following mammalian characteristics and relate each of these to

survival and adaptive values, advantages or disadvantages: homiothermy, endothermy, hair, fat, apocrine glands, eccrine glands, mammary glands, muscular diaphragm, nonnucleate red blood cells, four chambered heart, uterus, placenta, scrotum.

3. Summarize the adaptive trends of the mammals. (increase in body size, decrease In number of teeth, increase in length and strength of legs, increased radiation into new habitats, increase in size of brain.)

4. List the orders of mammals. State the distinguishing characteristics of each order and give common representatives of each.

5. Define terms herbivorous, carnivorous, insectivorous and omnivorous. Name some animals in each group.

6. List and briefly describe the mammalian characteristics which are superior to those of the reptiles.





7.Integumentary system.

8.Skeletal system

9. Circulatory system, & digestive system

10.Nervous system & endocrine system

11.Sensory system .

12. Respiratory system.

13.Reproductive & excretory system.