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Course Code: 
Course Outline: 


An-Najah National University

Faculty of Science

Department of Biology &Biotechnology

Course Description



. Instructor Name: Fatina Hanbali-Histology Course

  • Master of Biology 

   . An Najah National  University, Nablus –West bank- Palestine

  • Instructor Ext. Number and e-mail:

Office: (805) –First Floor

   Office hours

 ( Sunday & Tuesday 8-9 , Monday 11-2 ,

 Tuesday11-2 , Wednesday11-2 ,

 Thursday 11-2)



.  Course Title:Histology

  • Course Number:24421

          Is the Course Compulsory or Elective: compulsory

  • Course Credit Hours: 3
  • Teaching Language: English
  • Course Pre-requisition

   BIOL 101 and 102 (Principles of Biology I107and 108  labs) and 4 additional hours of      Zoology24264


  • Course Textbook:
  • Basic Histology 
  •             Text & atlas
  •             11th edition
  •             Luiz Carlos JUNQUEIRA
  •             Jose CARNERIRO





  • References:



 1) Basic Histology

           L.Carlos Jungueria

           Jose Carneiro

           Robert O.Kelloy

LANGE medical book


         2)Basic Histology 

            Text & atlas

            11th edition

            Luiz Carlos JUNQUEIRA

          Jose CARNERIRO

       3)Junqueira histology

12th edition


3)Atlas of Microscopic Anatomy: A Functional Approach: Companion to Histology and Neuroanatomy: Second Edition  (Univ. of Iowa) ** The entire Atlas is online -- complete with photomicrographs.


4)Bereford's full-text Histology Textbook (no images, highly organized outline form)


5)Histology Lab images& practice lab tests  Annotated images (Ladner, Univ. Med. & Dentistry New Jersey)  http://www3.umdnj.edu/histsweb/labindex.html




Course Objective:Lectures objectives : to study and prepare for exams .

Course Information and Objectives
Histology and Lab


Histology is a science which studies the microstructure under the light microscope (LM)and the ultra-structure using electron micrographs from the electron microscope (EM)of epithelial cells , and relationship between the microstructure and function.The teaching purposes of this subject are to induce the students who acquire the basic theories and knowledge of the course and gain relative basic skill training.By studying, the students should achieve such level: to distinguish the LM structure of varieties of cells, tissues and main organs, to distinguish the ultra-structure of the main cells and tissues of the body, to know the relationship between the structure and function, to establish a good basis for learning other basic and clinical medical courses.

The items of basic skill training of this subject are: to require the students to make their studying ability progressively, to use the teaching outline, textbook and laboratory guide efficiently; to use and to take care of the LM skillfully, to be familiar with the uses of every parts of LM; to draw or describe the morphologic structure feature of cells, tissues and organs observed under LM correctly using picture, language.

The teachers will explain the profound key contents and difficulty points in simple terms by this outline fully.Some morphological description may be comprehended by observation of specimen, models, picture and so on in the practice lessons.The teachers should make the Teaching Contents reflect the new advances of histology and avoid teaching the contents which have not been demonstrated amply.

The basic scope, range and quality of teaching have been stipulated in this outline, the outline act as a foundation for teaching and learning.The two-grade requirements of “understand” or “know” have been pointed in the “Learning Objectives” of every chapter.



  • Lecture-Discussion: date   (sunday &tuesday…)  time :…8-9 , 9-10… am in room…G070  , G010…..
  • Laboratory-Lecture: date:MON.,TUE.,WED,and THU.…. time11-2… pm in room…B2100…..
    Optional Histology Study Lab Sessions date:…... and date:…... time: ….. am in room…….........................
    (Lecture and Lab are co-requisites and must be taken concurrently.)
  • Offered Spring Semester per years. 

Histology is a must course , applicable to the biology Major.Course Summary:

A study of the microscopic and ultramicroscopic structure of mammalian tissues and organs, i.e., microscopic anatomy. Special emphasis is placed on the relation of structure to function. This course gives the student a thorough and detailed overview of the various human tissues and organs. This is an upper level course designed for students who want intensive preparation in microanatomy. The course is designed for qualified student . Students are expected to have college level preparation in mammalian anatomy and/or physiology (see Prerequisites below).

The course highlights normal human histology and the functional significance of microanatomical structures. The lab and lecture portions of the course are completely integrated; both lecture and lab material will be covered during each session. The amount of time devoted to lecture or lab will vary depending on the particular topic. Lecture sessions will include brief reviews of lecture and lab material and are intended to guide students rather than to present all the required details of the course material. (This means you'll need to study the textbooks, supplement, and lab materials in addition to lecture notes.) Lecture and lab study materials will include images digitized from  discs, CD-ROMs, World Wide Web (Internet) sites, digital images (including digitized 35 mm color slides), and microscope slides. Laboratory sessions will include some presentations by the instructor  as well as independent and group work using the study materials. Successful students will learn how to locate and identify normal mammalian tissues and organs using photomicrographs, microscope slides, digital images, CD-ROM, and WWW resources. Successful students will be able to use the specific and precise terminology of the field of histology.


Chapter 1



Learning Objectives

1.Know the research object, purpose and common research techniques of histology and embryology.

2.Know the relationship between the cubic morphology with varieties of sections.

【Teaching Contents】

1.The research contents and the situation in medicine of Histology and Embryology.

2.The common research techniques of histology and embryology.The basic principle of manufactory of histological sections.The meaning of acidophilic, basophilic and neutrophilic affinities.The basic principle of manufactory of ultra-thin section.The meaning of high electron dense and low electron dense of transmission electron micrograph (TEM).The observation of scanning electron microscope (SEM).The basic principle of histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and autoradiography (the observation of LM and TEM).The method of tissue culture.

3.The relationship between cubic morphology and varieties of sections.

4.The common length unit of microscope uses the international unit system correctly.


Chapter 2

The cytoplasm



 Learning Objectives

  • To study the ultra-structure of the cell.
  • To distinguish the normal structures and their functions .


Teaching Contents

     1-Cell cytoplasm , structure and function of various organelles.

     2-Membrane structure and function.


Chapter 3

The cell nucleus



Learning Objectives  

     1-Understand the ultra structure of the nucleus .

     2-Understand the type of cell whether it is active or not.

     3-Study the function of the nucleus .

Teaching Contents

  • Nuclear envelop.
  • Nucleolus.
  • Chromatin.


Chapter 4

Epithelial Tissue


Learning Objectives

1.Understand the general features and classification of epithelial tissue.

2.Understand the structured features and functions of varieties of covering epithelium.

3.Understand the L.M structure, E.M structured features and functions of microvilli and cilia.

4.Understand the position, L.M structure, ultra-structure and function of basement membrane.

5.Know the ultra-structure features and functions of varieties of intercellular conjunctions.

6.Know the conception of glandular cells, glandular epithelium and glands, and the morphological classification of exocrine glands.

Teaching Contents

1.The general structureal features and function


More cells (cells tightil joined)and less intercellular substance; polarity (free surface and basic surface); avascularity (no blood vessels); innervation (rich in nervous terminals);


Protection; secretion;absorption; excretion;


Covering epithelium, glandular epithelium and sense epithelium.

2.Covering epithelium


Covering epithelium can de divided into six common types according to cell-layering and cell-shape.

Simple squamous epithelium; simple cuboid epithelium; simple columnar epithelium;  pseudostratified columnar epithelium; stratified squamous epithelium; stratified columnar epithelium and transitional epithelium.

(2)Structural features of every type

3.The specializations of epithelial cell:

(1)Free surface

Microvilli: LM and Ultra-structured features and functions;

Cilia: LM and Ultra-structured features and functions;

(2)Lateral surface

Tight junction, intermedia junction, desmosome and gap junction: position and their general functions.

The conception of junctional complex:

(3)Basal surface

Basement membrane:  LM structure, Ultra-structure and function.

4.Glandular epithelium: The conception of glandular cell, glandular epithelium and gland.The generation of glandular cell and gland.The general features of exocrine gland and endocrine gland.The classification of exocrine gland.The types of glandular cell: protein secretary cell, glycoprotein secretary cell, steroid secretary cell.

5.The physiologic renew and the regeneration of the epithelium after destruction.


Chapter 5

Connective Tissue


Learning Objectives

1.Understand the feature and classification of the connective tissue.

2.Understand the structure and function of varied composition of the loose connective tissue.

3.Know the features of fibers and composition of the matrix.

4.Know the basic structure and function of the dense connective tissue, adipose tissue and reticular tissue.

Teaching Contents

The feature of connective tissue:

Less cells and abundent intercellular substance (matrix);

No polarity in cell;



The classification of connective tissue:

Proper connective tissue (Loose connective tissue (LCT); dense connective tissue (DCT); adipose tissue and reticular tissue);




1.Loose Connective tissue


Fibroblast: the structure under LM and EM; the process of formation of fibers and matrix;

Macrophage: the structure under LM and EM; the function of macrophage

Plasma cell: the structure under LM and EM; the function of it;

Mast cell: the structure of LM and its function

Another cell: adipose cell; undifferentiated mesenchymal cell and varied white cells.

●Intercellular matrix:

The physical and chemical properties and stain feature of collagenous fiber, elastic fiber and reticular fiber;

The composition, properties and functions of matrix;

2.Dense connective tissue:

The structural features and the distribution.

3.Adipose tissue:

The basic structure and function.

4.Reticular tissue: 

The components and distribution.


Adipose Connective Tissue


Learning Objectives

    1-Understand adipose tissue types .

    2-Understand their structure and function.

    3-Distinguish the normal and the disorders of adipose connective tissue. Teaching Contents

  • White and brown a.c.t.
  • Distribution and mobilizing a.c.t.






Learning Objectives

1.Understand the structure and function of hyaline cartilage,

2.Know the features of elastic cartilage and fibro-cartilage.

3.Understand the structure of osseous tissue and diathesis of long bone.

4.Know the processes of formation of bone and its remodeling.

5.Know the structure and role of osteoblast and osteoclast in regulation of blood calcium.

Teaching Contents


(1)The structure of cartilage tissue;

Chondrocyte:  the Structure and function;

(2)Intercellular substance: matrix and fibers, of cartilage.

(3)Perichondrium: the structure and function.

(4)The distribution, structured features and function of hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibro- cartilage.

2.Chapter 8





(1)The structure of Osseous tissue;

(2)The cells(four types: osteoid, osteocyte, osteoblast, and osteoclast)and the intercellular matrix of bone


Osteoid: the function;

Osteocyte: the structural features and position;

Osteoblast: the structural features and function;

Osteoclast: the structural features and function;

The role of osteoblast and osteoclast in regulation of blood calcium.

●Intercellular matrix of bone

Organic elements: fibers and matrix;

Inorganic elements: calcium salt (hydroxyapatite crystal, Ca10 (PO46(OH)2);

(3)The structure of osseous lamella:

(4)The structure of long bone:

Structure of spongy bone:

Structure of compact bone: inner circumferential lamellas, outer circumferential lamellas, intermediate lamellas and Harvensian system;

(5)The formation of the bone:(1)the processes of intramembranous ossification (2)the processes of endochondral ossification;


Chapter 9

Nerve Tissue



Learning Objectives

1.Understand the basic structure of nerve tissue;

2.Understand the structure and function of nerve cell;

3.Know the types and general function of neuroglia.

4.Understand the ultra-structure and classification of the synapse.

5.Understand the structure and classification of nerve fibers.

Teaching Contents

1.The basic structure of nerve tissue.

Nerve cell (neurons):

Neuroglia (glial cell):


(1)The classification of neuron

(2)The structure and function of neuron

●Cell body (soma or prikaryon)


The features of nuclear:

Large, round, clear, prominence nucleolus;

The features of cytoplasm:


Nissl bodies (RER and free ribosome);

Neurofibril (microtubule and neurofilament)

another organelles;


Synthesis protein (neurotransmitters and neuroregulates)


Number: one or more;

Structure: same with the cell body; dendritic spine;

Function: transport nerve impulse from ending to cell body;


Number: one only;

Structure: no Nessl bodies;

Function: transport nerve impulse from cell body to ending;


Definition: the conjunction between nerve cells or between the nerve cell and another cell (such as glandular cell or muscle cell etc.)

Types: chemical synapse and electrical synapse;

EM Structure of chemical synapse:

Presynaptic element: presynaptic membrane, synaptic vesicle;

Postsynaptic element: postsynaptic membrane, receptors;

Synaptic space: less filaments and protein;



In CNS — ependymal cell, astrocyte, ligodendrocyte and microglial cell;

In PNS — neurolemmal cell and ganglionic glial cell;

General structure and function of all glial cells:

* Blood-brain barrier (BBB):

Endothelial cell of Capillary;

Basement membrane;

Food plate of Astrocyte;

5.Nerve fiber:


Types: myelinated nerve fiber and unmyelinated nerve fiber.

Structure of myelinated nerve fiber:

Formation of the myelin sheath:

6.Nerve ending:



Chapter 10

Muscle tissue


Learning Objectives

1.Understand the microstructure and function of three kinds of muscle tissues.

2.Understand the ultra-structure and different points between skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle.

3.Know the ultra-structure of the smooth muscle.

Teaching Contents

1.The properties of muscle tissues;


Some concepts: Muscle fiber (myofiber);sarcolema; sarcoplasm; sarcoplasmic reticulum; myofidril;

2.Skeletal muscle

(1)The structural features under LM:

Nuclear — number; position;

Striation —

Sarcomere — definition; function

(2)The structural features under EM

Myofibril —

T tubule —

Sarcoplasmic reticulum —

Triad —

(3)The structural foundation of skeletal muscle contraction;

(4)The muscle satellite cell

(5)The regeneration of skeletal muscle;

(6)The structure of muscle — endomysium, perimysium, epimysium.

3.Cardiac muscle

(1)The main different points of microstructure and ultra-structure between cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle;

(2)The ultra-structure of intercalated disk.                           

4.Smooth muscle

The structural feature of LM and EM; the conjunction method between smooth muscle fibers.








«To gain the most from the course (and to achieve success as measured by good grades) you will want to study in the laboratoryfor several hours each week in addition to the scheduled class and lab sessions.  Even though digital images can be used from anywhere on internet, the microscopes are available only in the lab room.  Also, you will want to take advantage of the benefits of having the instructor and your classmates available during your study sessions.

A cooperative and open atmosphere is expected during all class and lab meetings. Lecture and laboratory materials should be studied simultaneously and some use of lab time to review lecture material is expected. The laboratory will be open for extra review during posted hours. Students are encouraged to study together but no cooperation during exams is permitted.

Prerequisites:  BIOL 101 and 102 (Principles of Biology I107and 108  labs) and 4 additional hours of Zoology24264. It is recommended that your previous biology courses include preparation in anatomy and/or physiology [for example,at least one of the following with lab. 107 and108 ]zoology , cell biology , physiology. In addition, developmental biology is recommended and biochemistry will be helpful. Students who have not made at least a "C" in each of the prerequisites should repeat the necessary courses before attempting further course work in Biology. Students without the prerequisites must have permission of the professor or Department Head to enroll.



Student Responsibilities

You are responsible for all information presented during lecture and laboratory sessions. Lecture attendance is required.  Laboratory attendance is required.  Laboratory sessions will require the entire scheduled period. You will be responsible for cleaning up before you leave lab.  Therefore, do not expect to be out of lab before the scheduled time.  Attendance at lecture and lab exams is required.  If you miss lecture or lab for any reason, you are expected to inform me and you are responsible for making up the missed work on your own time (you must have me verify that you have made up missed lab work).  Unexcused absences will lower your grade.  Excessive absences are grounds for automatic failure. 

You will need to read the assigned text



This course seeks to lead the student to an understanding of the normal ultra-structure & microscopic form and function of human tissues through lectures , discussions , and laboratories . The lab and lectures portions are strongly integrated ; the lab requires ultra-micrographs & microscope work and projected slides , besides video &CD may be used.

Course materials and assignments class notes : from instructor and text .

  • Laboratory objectives : to examine and study the tissue structure , an express it very well in note book ,and to distinguish the normal tissues




  • Learning Outcomes:




Grade Distribution:

Exams and Grading

Grading scale: 90.0-100% = A, 80.0-89.9% = B, 70.0-79.9% = C,  60.0-69.9% = D, below 60.0% = F.

  • An honor system is in effect for all lecture and lab exams. It is considered a violation of the CBU Code of Conduct to receive or give assistance during an examination. Exam questions are not returned for students to keep. However, answer keys will be available following each exam. In this course, the use of old examinations is considered a violation of the CBU Code of Conduct and is grounds for automatic failure.Course Load Distribution Percentage:


Course work

Check with X Mark if applicable

Percent (%)

First Exam.



Second Exam.






Final Exam.




Lab . quiz  5points each lab








Term paper



Laboratory Work












(   Biology & Biotechnology     ) Department

Lectures                Homework                  Projects           Others             Lab.                 Total










Histology and its methods of study




The cytoplasm




The cell nucleus




Epithelial tissue

                                            FIRST EXAM 20 %  ( 27/2/2010   at 1p.m.)








Connective tissue




Adipose tissue




Cartilage B one

SECOND EXAM 20 %  ( 3/4/2010 at 1p.m.)









Never Tissue and the Nervous system




Muscle tissue




Blood ­­­cells

                 16                                            FINALEXAM 35%

Practical exam 25%






Biology & Biotechnology  ) Department

  • Chapter 1:Histology & it`s methods of study                  
  • Chapter 2:The cytoplasm                                                 
  • Chapter 3:The nucleus                                                                   
  • Chapter 4:Epitehelial tissue                                                                          
  • Chapter 5:Connective tissue                                                       
  • Chapter 6:Adipose tissue
  • Chapter 7:Cartilage                                                                    
  • Chapter 8:Bone                                                                      

Chapter 9:Nervous tissue and Nervous system                          Chapter10:Muscle tissue                                                  Chapter12 : Blood cells