hepatitis B

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Risk Factors of Hepatitis B Transmission in Northern Palestine: a Case – Control Study

Journal Title, Volume, Page: 
BMC Research Notes 2014, 7:190 doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-190
Year of Publication: 
Zaher Nazzal
Assistant Professor in Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, Box 7,707, Nablus, Palestine
Current Affiliation: 
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Inam Sobuh
MPH, Faculty of Graduate Studies, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Preferred Abstract (Original): 

Background The Hepatitis B (HB) infection is a significant health problem in Palestine, which is categorized as an HB virus moderate endemic area, with the HB carrier rate ranging from 2-6%. The aim of this study is to determine the risk factors of Hepatitis transmission in the northern areas of Palestine in order to help prevent and control this prevalent health problem.
Methods A case–control study was implemented to achieve the study objectives. One hundred HB virus seropositive cases and another 100 seronegative controls were included in the study. Univariate analysis and a logistic regression model were performed to examine probable risk factors of acquisition of HB infections.
Results Univariate analysis showed that HB case-patients were more likely to report having a history of blood transfusion, dental visits, hospitalization, Hejamat, sharing shaving equipments, intravenous drug use, or living abroad than controls were. The logistic regression model revealed a history of dental visits to be the most significant risk factor, (P value <0.001, OR 5.6; 95% CI 2.8-11.1).
Conclusion The presence of these risk factors emphasizes the need for both increasing the uptake of HB vaccine and implementing risk-targeted public health education. Development and enforcement of appropriate infection control guidelines for dental care services are important to prevent HB virus transmission as well.

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Management of Healthcare Waste in Circumstances of Limited Resources: A Case Study in the Hospitals of Nablus City, Palestine

Journal Title, Volume, Page: 
Waste Manag Res June 2009 vol. 27 no. 4 305-312
Year of Publication: 
Issam A. Al-Khatib
Institute of Environmental and Water Studies, Birzeit University, West Bank, Palestine
Yousef S. Al-Qaroot
Faculty of Medical Allied Sciences, Arab American University, Jenin, West Bank, Palestine
Mohammad S. Ali-Shtayeh
Faculty of Graduate Studies, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
Current Affiliation: 
Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus. Palestine
Preferred Abstract (Original): 

The objectives of this study were the assessment of healthcare waste management and the characterization of healthcare waste material generated in the hospitals in Nablus city, Palestine, and furthermore, to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B among the cleaning personnel working in these hospitals. The medical waste generation rate in kg per bed per day was between 0.59 and 0.93 kg bed— 1 day—1. The waste generation rate in the healthcare facilities of Nablus city hospitals was similar to some other developing countries; however, the percentage of medical wastes in the total waste stream was comparatively high. The density of medical waste at the four hospitals studied ranged between 144.9 and 188.4 kg m— 3 with a mean value of 166.7 kg m—3. The waste segregation and handling practices were very poor. Other alternatives for waste treatment rather than incineration such as a locally made autoclave integrated with a shredder should be evaluated and implemented. The system of healthcare waste management in Nablus city is in need of immediate improvement and attention. Formulating rules and guidelines for medical waste and developing strategies for overcoming the obstacles related to waste management should be considered as an urgent matter.

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