Development Of Abilities Of Metaphorical Thinking Of Students In Basic And Secondary Education In Jordan

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Journal Title, Volume, Page: 
رسالة دكتوراة غير منشورة
Year of Publication: 
Shehadeh Mustafa Shehadeh Abdo
Department Of Teaching Methods, Faculty of Educational Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus, P. O. Box 7, Palestine
Preferred Abstract (Original): 

The study aimed to investigate the development of metaphorical thinking abilities of grades 7th ,9th  and first secondary scientific, and defining the relation between the development of these abilities with studeAnts, gender, achievement level in science, and the academic level(grade). The study attempted to get acquainted with the metaphorical thinking abilities differ among the students due to their grade, due to their gender and achievement level in science.  A samle of (144) students (72 males, 72 females) was chosen randomly from (20) schools in Amman area according to their achievement level in science and academic levels(grades). A (10) tasks test was administered to investigate  the development of metaphorical thinking abilities. The test was validated by judges, and reliability by two technique reliability through time and  reliability through persons.  Three types of metaphors were used: physical, chemical and  biological metaphor. Subjects were interviewed individually, each interview was held in two steps. Students answers to questions and their thinking aloud were tape-recorded. Interview protocols were analyzed using categorization table written by the researcher. Three abilities were depicted which were : presented analogies (self-generated analogies), determination of similarities, and determination of differences abilities. Results showed that(38%) of the subjects in pre-concrete metaphorical thinking stage, and the results showed that (25%) of the subjects concrete metaphorical thinking stage (subjects presented simple metaphors, determined concrete similarities, and determined concrete differences). Results also showed that (37%) of the subjects in formal metaphorical thinking stage( subjects presented elaborate(complex) metaphors, determined formal similarities, and determined formal differences). The results of Chi Square (?2) analysis showed that there was a significant association between the ability and achievement level in science, and academic level(grade). No significant correlation was detected between the Metaphorical thinking abilities and gender. The analysis also showed that there was a significant association between types of Metaphors presented, and types of similarities determined, and types of differences determined and academic level(grade) for males and females. It was noted that the high percentage of subjects in pre-concrete  metaphorical thinking stage and concrete metaphorical thinking stage was due to the nature of the texts in the students book of science, and due to teachers roles in the classrooms and their evaluation methods. Thus, a number of suggestions for the authorities of education and researchers were put forward.