Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology (APAMT)- 9th Scientific Congress

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Research Title: 
Impact of Serum Acetaminophen Concentration on Changes in ‎Serum Potassium, Creatinine and Urea Concentrations Among ‎Patients with Acetaminophen Overdose
Authors: 
Zyoud SH
Authors: 
Awang R
Authors: 
Syed Sulaiman SA
Authors: 
Al-Jabi SW
Country: 
Vietnam
Research Abstract: 

Acetaminophen overdose may be accompanied by electrolyte disturbances. The basis for electrolyte change appears to be due to increased fractional urinary electrolyte excretion.

PURPOSE:

This study investigated the impact of serum acetaminophen concentration on changes in serum potassium, creatinine and urea concentrations in patients with acetaminophen overdose.

METHODS:

This was a retrospective cohort study which included patients admitted to the emergency department and hospital within 24 h of acetaminophen ingestion. The study was conducted over a period of 5 years from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2008. Data are presented as mean ± SD and as medians (interquartile range) and groups were compared using independent two-tailed Student t-test. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 15 was used for data analysis.

RESULTS:

Two hundred and eighty-three patients were studied (44 males and 239 females), mean age 23 ± 7.5 years. Patients who had a serum acetaminophen concentration above a 'possible toxicity' treatment line were associated with an elevation in serum creatinine concentration (p=0.044) and a reduction in the serum potassium concentration (p<0.001) but were not associated with a reduction in serum urea concentration (p>0.99). During the study period, 63.3% (179 patients) had serum potassium concentrations less than the normal concentration (3.5 mmol/l) and 31.4% (89 patients) had serum urea concentrations less than the normal concentration (2.5 mmol/l). The serum creatinine concentration in all patients was within the normal range.

CONCLUSIONS:

Acetaminophen appears to cause a concentration-dependent reduction of potassium concentrations and an elevation of creatinine concentrations of short duration (<24 h) after overdose.