The Second Conference on Biotechnology Research and Application in Palestine

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Research Title: 
Conservation of Palestinian Biodiversity by In Vitro Culture
Sawalha K.
Alkowni R.
Mon, 2010-09-27
Conservation_of_Palestinian_Biodiversity_by_In_Vitro_Culture.pdf269.86 KB
Research Abstract: 

Flora of Palestine is rich with economic plants that can be exploited for biotechnological applications. Many of these plants face dangers and threats in t heir natural habitats; hence introduction of selected plants to tissue culture is viable approach to conserve plant biodiversity in Palestine. Various plants including: anise, mint, sage and akoub were used to establish cultures on artificial MS medium supplemented with plant growth regulators. It was recorded that some plants are faster in callus initiation more than others depending on explant origin, hormonal treatment and environmental conditions. The calli were used as starting  cultures  t o establish suspension, root or shoot differentiated cultures following various treatments by phyto-hormones and adjustment of physical environment. The potential of using such cultures for different applications was examined. For example regeneration, secondary compound production and genetic engineering were recorded. These applications can be activated for further scientific studies and economic exploitation. The main aim of establishing such research is to conserve medicinal plants through tissue culture technology to meet biodiversity approach, in addition to t examine the amenability of the targeted plants for different culture systems  Ex-plant material mainly stems and leaves were used in aseptic technique t o introduce and establish primary callus cultures. Hormonal supplement (mainlyauxin and cytokinin balance) was adjusted according to criteria depending on plant species and environmental conditions applied. Callus cultures were then used to regenerate whole plants, to establish other cultures like suspension or used for organogenesis. Plant cultures were maintained and sub-cultured to conserve plant stock in vitro. More than 21 of the most popular Palestinian plants were targeted for reservation in vitro. Those plant are the following: anise (Pimipnella anisum), mint (Mentha sps), sage (Salvia palaestina),  akoub (Gandelia tournefortii) , carrot (Daucus carota), broad bean (Vicia faba), potato (Solanum tuberosum), Sawsan (iris haynei), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), wheat (Triticum spp), blackseeds (Nigella ciliaris), chickpeas (Cicer arietinum), bean (Phaseolus), cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum), maize (Zea mays), Syngonium (Syngonium podophyllum), olive (Olea europa), fenugreek (Trigonella sps), date pal m (Phoenix dactylifera), barel y (Hordeum vulgare), Lublab (Senecio sps.)  The Callus cultures of all tested plants were established and maintained. The most ideal explant for establishing cultures was found the stem for all examined plants. The hormonal balance was proved as vital parameter for culture initiation with auxin high ratio. The growth rat e of suspension cultures was faster than calli cultures. Garden and pot entially economic plants from flora Palestina are important as biodiversity members while biotechnological applications can be performed for human benefits. The most powerful and economic promises of using wild and cultivated plants in bi otechnology are based on conservation value and secondary compounds production as bioactive compounds which can be used as pharmaceuticals, food additives, bio-pesticides or even as perfumes. Adding to that the rescue of threatened species can be applied by in vitro cultivation.