Imaging the Dead Sea Transform with Scattered Seismic Waves

radwan's picture
Journal Title, Volume, Page: 
Geophys. J. Int., Vol. 158, 179-186‎
Year of Publication: 
El-Kelani, R‎.
Maercklin, N.
Haberland, Ch.
Ryberg, T.
Weber, M.
Bartov, V.‎
Preferred Abstract (Original): 

With controlled seismic sources and specifically designed receiver arrays, we image a subvertical boundary between two lithological blocks at the Arava Fault (AF) in the Middle East. The AF is the main strike-slip fault of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) in the segment between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea. Our imaging (migration) method is based on array beamforming and coherence analysis of P to P scattered seismic phases. We use a 1-D background velocity model and the direct P arrival as a reference phase. Careful resolution testing is necessary, because the target volume is irregularly sampled by rays. A spread function describing energy dispersion at localized point scatterers and synthetic calculations for large planar structures provides estimates of the resolution of the images. We resolve a 7 km long steeply dipping reflector offset roughly 1 km from the surface trace of the AF. The reflector can be imaged from about 1 km down to 4 km depth. Previous and ongoing studies in this region have shown a strong contrast across the fault: low seismic velocities and electrical resistivities to the west and high velocities and resistivities to the east of it. We therefore suggest that the imaged reflector marks the contrast between young sedimentary fill in the west and Precambrian rocks in the east. If correct, the boundary between the two blocks is offset about 1 km east of the current surface trace of the AF.