Possibility of Developing Eco-Friendly Residential Buildings in the Palestinian Cities- A Case Study from Jenin and Ramallah Cities

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Majd Hashem Abdel Hadi
Due to climate changes resulting from human activity, which was the outcome of many of the negative changes, as the phenomenon of global warming, low rates of rainfall, environmental pollution and emission of toxic gases, as a result of those variables facing the world, countries in the world worked to protect the environment by reducing the impact of human activities, decreasing the waste and pollution, and maintaining a natural resource - base for future generations. The resources available and the local building materials were exploited due to the potentials available, these resources provided environmental answers that fitted the building and the surrounding environment, such as the orientation of the buildings ,the investment of the topography of the land, the use of courtyards in the buildings، the use of ' mashrabiyya', shapes and sizes of windows and vents, walls thickness، reliance on local materials, convergence of the buildings, and the use of plants as elements of air conditioning to reduce the environmental climatic conditions. In this research, studied the traditional architecture from all its aspects, such as the style of the building and the elements of building materials, adapting the environment with the climate, analyzing the modern architectural buildings including the materials and the style of this construction,then comparing the old and the new buildings, studying all these results in this research, will help to improve the construction sector in its various stages, starting from the design and the implementation until reaching the operational phase. This study developed a number of recommendations in order to reach sustainable building systems, these results and recommendations were presented to improve the performance of the building, in terms of materials and modern construction techniques, such as isolation materials, exploitation of energy types, attention to recycling and reducing gas emissions, despite the fact that these techniques may be expensive but it will reduce operating expenses in the long run for the lifetime of the building. Given the framework of the changes that face the world owing to climate changes due to human activities that led to many negative phenomena like global warming، drop in rainfall, environmental pollution, and toxic gas emission,countries of the world sought to protect the environment by reducing the impact of the different human activities and reduce waste and pollutants and preserve natural resources for the future generations. Back in the old days، local construction material was used and techniques were introduced that integrated what’s being built with the surrounding environment such as; buildings orientation, utilization of land topographic, use of interior courtyards, Mashrabiyyat, air collector, shapes and sizes of openings, walls thickness, buildings convergence, plant elements in environmental adaptation, and minimization of climate conditions. I have studied both traditional and modern architecture and have examined their styles, elements, construction material, and adaptation to environment and climate. I have analyzed the data through computer programs to compare between traditional and modern construction. Upon analyzing the results, the study puts forward number of recommendations for sustainable building systems that improve the performance of the buildings in terms of material and modern construction techniques, by using insulating materials and utilizing energy in all its types with interest in recycling and reducing gas emissions. All of which aim to improve the construction sector throughout its different stages: starting from design and implementation down to the operational stage.