Timely Data Delivery in a Realistic Bus Network

Dr. Saed TARAPIAH's picture
Journal Title, Volume, Page: 
Journal: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology - IEEE TRANS VEH TECHNOL , vol. 61, no. 3, 2012
Year of Publication: 
Saed Tarapiah
Current Affiliation: 
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, An-Najah National University, Nablus, P.O. Box 7, Palestine
Utku Acer
Paolo Giaccone
David Hay
Giovanni Neglia
Preferred Abstract (Original): 
WiFi-enabled buses and stops may form the backbone of a metropolitan delay tolerant network, that exploits nearby communications, temporary storage at stops, and predictable bus mobility to deliver non-real time information. This paper studies the problem of how to route data from its source to its destination in order to maximize the delivery probability by a given deadline. We assume to know the bus schedule, but we take into account that randomness, due to road traffic conditions or passengers boarding and alighting, affects bus mobility. In this sense, this paper is one of the first to tackle quasi-deterministic mobility scenarios. We propose a simple stochastic model for bus arrivals at stops, supported by a study of real-life traces collected in a large urban network with 250 bus lines and about 7500 bus-stops. A succinct graph representation of this model allows us to devise an optimal (under our model) single-copy routing algorithm and then extend it to cases where several copies of the same data are permitted. Through an extensive simulation study, we compare the optimal routing algorithm with three other approaches: minimizing the expected traversal time over our graph, maximizing the delivery probability over an infinite time-horizon, and a recently-proposed heuristic based on bus frequencies. We show that, in general, our optimal algorithm outperforms the three, but it essentially reduces to either minimizing the expected traversal time when transmissions are always successful, or maximizing the delivery probability over an infinite time-horizon when transmissions fail frequently. For reliable transmissions and reasonable values of deadlines, the multi-copy extension requires only 10 copies to reach almost the performance of costly flooding approaches.
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