Learning by the Cooperation and Competition Methods and their Effects on Students' Achievement in Mathematics both at the Fifth and Eleventh Grades and their Attitudes towards each Method

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Type: 
Thesis
Year: 
2008
Students: 
Mohammad K halil Fayed
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Learning by the Cooperation and Competition Methods and their Effects on Students' Achievement in Mathematics both at the Fifth and Eleventh Grades and their Attitudes towards each Method5.04 MB
Abstract: 
This study investigated the effect of cooperative and competitive learning methods, on the academic achievement of the fifth-grade students and the scientific first secondary grade students in mathematics as compared to traditional learning method, and the recognition of their attitudes towards the method of their learning. To achieve this purpose, the researcher used a random sample that consisted of (203) male and female from the fifth grade students, and (176) male and female from the students of the scientific first secondary grade in Jenin city. They were divided into three groups: 1- A first experimental group: studied by the cooperative method, and consisted of four sections: two fifth-grade sections (male section and female section), and two scientific-first grade sections (male section, and female section). 2-A second experimental group: studied by the competitive method, and consisted of four sections: two fifth-grade sections (male section and female section), and two scientific-first grade sections (male section, and female section). 3-The control group: studied by the traditional method, and consisted of four sections: two fifth-grade sections (male section and female section), and two scientific-first grade sections (male section, and female section). The groups which were taught by the cooperative method were divided into groups in which students cooperate in doing their homework and the required tasks until all group members succeeded in understanding, completing and achieving the goal. In the groups which were taught by the competition method, students competed individually to achieve the goal. Concerning the third group and which were taught by the traditional method, it was a control group and continued in the usual method, and didn't change as its counterparts in the experimental groups which were taught in the cooperative method or in the competitive one. The experience continued for (34) days with (24) periods for each grade. By the end of the experiment, two test were applied on all sample groups: the first for the fifth grade consisted of (16) sections: an objective and essay section. The second was for the scientific first secondary grade consisted of (13) sections: an objective and essay section. The researcher distributed also a questionnaire consisted of (20) sections to measure the students’ attitudes towards the educational method. The researcher noticed the following: Firstly: Results of the achievement test. 1- The results of the fifth grade achievement: - There are statistical differences at (α=0.05) attributed to the method variable, and it was in the favor of competitive method over the traditional method, whereas no differences were between the competitive method and the cooperative one, neither between the cooperative method and the traditional method. - There are statistical differences (0.00001) attributed to the ability variable, in favor of the students of the higher ability over the students of intermediate and lower abilities, and also in favor of the intermediate ability over the students of the lower ability. - There are differences approached the statistical evidence (0.09) attributed to interaction between the method and sex. It means that the females learned more in the competitive method than the males, whereas their performance didn't differ from the performance of the male when learning in the cooperative method or the traditional method. - There are no statistical differences at (α=0.05) due to the sex variable, and the interaction between the method and the ability, and the interaction between the ability and the sex, and the interaction between the method and the ability and the sex . - Regarding comparing the control and experimental groups, there are no statistical differences at (α=0.05). Though averages showed the priority of competitive method over the cooperative and traditional methods. 2- The results of the first scientific secondary grade achievement test: - There are statistical differences (0.05) attributed to the method, and it was in favor of cooperative method over the traditional method, whereas no differences were found between the cooperative method and the competitive one, and between the competitive method and the traditional method. - There are statistical differences (0.00001) attributed to the ability variable, in favor of the students of the higher ability over the students of intermediate and lower abilities, and also in favor of the students of the intermediate ability over the students of the lower ability. - There are statistical differences (0.04) attributed to the sex variable in favor of the females over the males. There are differences approached the statistical evidence attributed to the interaction between the method and the ability. It means that the competitive method suits the students of higher ability rather than the cooperative and traditional method. It also shows that the cooperative method suits the students of intermediate and lower abilities rather than the competitive and the traditional method. - There are no statistical differences at (α=0.05) attributed to the interaction between the method and the sex, or the interaction between the ability and the sex, or the interaction between the method, the ability and the sex. - There are statistical differences (0.02) between the experimental groups and the control group. it was in favor of the experimental groups which were taught in cooperative method over the control group which were taught in traditional method. over there are no differences between the experimental groups which were taught in cooperative method and the experimental groups which were taught in competitive method, neither between the experimental groups which were taught in cooperative method and the control group which were taught in traditional method. 3- Results of the achievement for the fifths grade against the scientific first secondary grade: - There are statistical differences (0.00001) attributed to the grade variable in favor of the students of the scientific first secondary grade against the fifth grade students. - There are statistical differences (0.01) attributed to the method variable, where the method of the cooperative and competitive learning excelled in achievement over the traditional method, and there are no differences between the cooperative and competitive methods. There are statistical differences (0.00001) attributed to the ability variable in favor of the students of the higher ability over the students of intermediate and lower abilities, and also in favor of the students of the intermediate ability over the students of the lower ability. - There are differences approached the statistical evidence (0.07) attributed to the sex, and it was in favor of the females over the males. - There are statistical differences (0.04) attributed to the interaction between the grade and the method. The students of the scientific first secondary grade learned in the cooperative method better than the competitive method and the traditional method, whereas the students of the fifths grade learn in the competitive method better than the cooperative method and the traditional method. - There are statistical differences (0.00001) attributed to the interaction between the grade and the ability. While the performance of the students from the higher ability remained high in the two grades regardless of the teaching method, While the performance of the students from the lower ability descended noticeably in the two grades, especially in the fifth grade, which appears as: fifth grade m=15.28%, and the scientific first secondary grade m=58.98%. - There are no statistical differences at (α=0.05) attributed to the interaction between the method and the ability, or the interaction between the grade, the method and ability, or the interaction between the grade and the sex, or for the interaction between the method and the sex, or for the interaction between the grade, the method, and sex. Secondly: Results of a questionnaire attitudes towards the educational method - There are no statistical differences at (α=0.05) in the attitudes of the fifth grade students towards the teaching method at their learning whether by the cooperation method or the competition method or the traditional method. - There are differences approached the statistical evidence (0.08) in the attitudes of the students of the scientific first secondary grade towards the teaching method. They preferred the cooperation method to the competitive method or the traditional method. - There are statistical differences (0.00001) in the attitudes towards the educational method attributed to the grade variable, where of the fifth grade students preferred the educational method which they learned by more than the scientific first secondary grade students. There was no difference in preferring the cooperative over the competitive or the traditional methods. The study recommends the teachers to vary their teaching methods, with the concentration on the competitive method in basic stage, and the cooperative learning methods in secondary stage in studying maths. It also recommends other researchers to carry out more researches about the cooperative learning methods and the competitive learning in different grades and different educational stages, and different subjects of education other than mathematics.