The ‎43rd World Assembly Conference of the International Council on Education for ‎Teaching (ICET)

2137's picture
Research Title: 
How Can Teachers Activate Students’ Cognitive Strategies By Using Adjunct Questions: ‎A Prescriptive Model for Improving Teaching and Learning
Darwazeh, A. N.
Mon, 1996-12-16
Research Abstract: 
Cognitive psychologists have hypothesized that activating students’ cognitive strategies will help them to process, store, and retrieve information on high levels of learning; hence, their academic achievement will enhance remarkably.  To verify this hypothesis, several cognitive strategy activators were used in school classrooms, such as adjunct questions, advance organizers, note-taking, pictures, stories, summaries, syntheses, understanding, etc.  Of those, adjunct questions are considered one of the most popular cognitive activators that teachers use in our schools.
Educators have manipulated adjunct questions as cognitive strategy activators in terms of their instructional systems and positions.  Two instructional systems were used:  1) Embedded System ( ES) in which students are forced to use adjunct questions that were prepared by teachers (experimenter, designer, or researcher), and 2) Generative System (GS) in which students are directed or trained to generate their own adjunct questions.  Two positions of adjunct questions were also manipulated:  1) Pre-questions in which questions appear before instruction, and 2) Post-questions in which questions appear after instruction.
The review of previous research on adjunct questions showed that the conditions of using adjunct questions as (ES) were different from the conditions of using adjunct questions as ( GS).  It also showed  that the conditions of using pre-questions were different from the conditions of using post-questions.  Accordingly, the author proposed an instructional model of adjunct questions for improving learning, teaching, and designing.