Impacts of Irrigation With High Heavy Metals Concentration On Soil and Ground Water

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Inaya Mizyad
Impacts_of_Irrigation_With_High.pdf1.53 MB
In this study, irrigation with water containing heavy metals (copper, lead and zinc) was simulated for soils from two areas around the city of Nablus; Salim and Deir Sharaf Plans are already made to apply treated wastewater from Nablus municipality to these two areas. As industrial effluents are usually included in wastewater flow to these areas, there is a risk of soil and groundwater pollution by heavy metals in these areas. Soils from these areas were sampled and analyzed to study their chemical and physical properties. Simulation of irrigation with water containing heavy metals was done using soil columns of 2 meters height. The results of chemical and physical analysis of these soils showed that the soils are classified as clay loam with good chemical and physical properties. The salinity of these soils was found to be low, the pH was between 7 and 8, the calcium content was high while the sodicity was low. Soils were found to be calcareous soils. These properties make these soils good agricultural soils and suitable for most agricultural crops. The drainage conditions of these soils were found to be good. Their permeability is good due to their good structure resulting from low sodium and high calcium contents. Simulation of irrigation with water containing heavy metals showed an increase in heavy metals concentrations in soil and in leachate with increasing the addition of heavy metals in irrigation water. Heavy metals concentrations increased with depth and time of application. Although these soils were classified as clay loam, but their self-purification was highly affected by the formation of cracks due to their expansion and shrinkage resulting from wetting and drying patterns. Therefore, especially near the surface of these soils, water flows through these cracks at high rates without giving the soil enough time to exchange many cations with soil solution.